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Chapter 4 of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria stipulates the fundamental rights of Nigerian citizens. This includes the right to life; the right to dignity of human persons; the right to freedom of expression and the press; the right to peaceful assembly and association; right to freedom of movement; among others1.


The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of Nigeria was established by the National Human Rights Commission Rights 1995 (as amended) in line with Resolution 48/134 of the United Nations General Assembly which enjoins all member states to establish independent National Institutions for the promotion, protection and enforcement of human rights. The Commission serves as an extra-judicial mechanism for the respect and enjoyment of human rights. It also provides avenues for public enlightenment, research, and dialogue to raise awareness on Human Rights issues2.


Globally, Nigeria is a member of the United Nations (UN) and as such, is subject to the scrutiny of the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) under the UN Human Rights Council3. According to the CIVICUS Monitor, the Nigerian civic space is currently rated as Repressed4.


This means that the democratic freedoms of Nigerian citizens in relation to the freedom of expression, peaceful assembly, and association are significantly constrained.

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